Selasa, 06 April 2010

Characteristic sound

It was said if it would be no mountain that erupted the wild animals that live around the mountain is normally conduct mass evacuation ... these wild animals have "advanced detectors" that help them save themselves from the raging volcano. Well, more powerful than man-made seismograph he2 ... maybe yes ... you guessed wild animals are displaced due to the temperature of the area surrounding the volcano is high enough. In fact the temperature factor has no effect ... yesterday when Mount Merapi coughing;), many animals such as tigers, deer, wild boar (not a piggy bank but wild boar) and colleagues did not conduct a mass evacuation ... how to explain this? why the animals can escape before the devastating volcano will erupt?
Answer the above questions related to the sound wave sound wave ...? What to do? on this matter will be thoroughly peeled gurumuda at the end of this article. Before reviewing peculiarities of animals, we first discuss the characteristics of typical alias sound ... the sound characteristics associated with the sensation that is felt by every listener ...

Declare loudly loudness or softness of the sound ... the sound of trucks produced louder than the sound produced by a motorcycle. In this case the noise generated by trucks louder than the noise generated by motorcycles. The sound produced by aircraft noise louder than that produced by cars ... there are many other examples ... In physics, the loudness actually related to energy or intensity of the wave. If we are talking about the one-dimensional wave (eg, one-dimensional wave = wave on a string) then the more important when we discuss energy. Conversely, if we talk about the wave of three-dimensional (ie three-dimensional wave = waves of sound or seismic waves) then the more important when we discuss the intensity (I) waves. In the subject of energy, power and intensity of wave mechanics, has been described in a short length of intensity. Intensity (I) represents the wave energy carried by the wave per unit time through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. Since the energy per unit time is power then it could be said that intensity is the power carried by the wave through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. Intensity depends on the amplitude, frequency, wave speed and density of the medium.

The relationship between loudness and intensity of the sound waves will be discussed more fully in the next episode ...

Pitch (pitch) If you are struggling with the world of music would be familiar with this strange term. Pitch or the pitch is a term used to describe the height of a sound. The sound of the flute is more "high" while the drums sound more "low". In this case, the sound of the flute pitch higher pitch than the sound of drums. String melody sound more "high" while the bass strings sound more "low". In this case the string melody pitch sounds higher pitch than the sound of the bass strings.

Physical quantities that determine the pitch is the frequency. The higher the frequency the higher the sound pitch. Conversely the lower the sound frequency the lower the pitch. Btw, pitch is also affected by the amplitude. If we heard a sound that has the same frequency but different amplitudes, the sounds which have a larger amplitude although the sound louder but lower pitch tone.

Alias sound quality tone color (timbre)
For example, if we play the guitar and piano with the loudness and pitch the same, we can still distinguish the two sounds are produced by the instrument. In this case, although the same loudness and pitch tone but we could still distinguish the sound of guitar and piano sounds. This difference is known as the sound quality. In the world scene;), usually used in terms of color tone or timbre.

Range of human hearing One has previously described the sound characteristics, namely height. Physical quantities that determine the altitude is the frequency. You may have heard the sound of melodic guitar and bass guitar sound. The sound of the guitar melodies are more "high" because the frequency of the resulting string guitar melody higher, otherwise the bass guitar sound more "low" because of the frequency generated is also lower. The higher the frequency, the higher a sound, conversely the lower the frequency, the lower the sound. Btw, if the frequency is too low, so our ears could not hear the sound. Likewise, if the frequency is too high then we are no ear could hear.
On average, humans can hear sounds ranging in frequency between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Sound wave frequency is lower than 20 Hz or higher than 20,000 Hz can not be heard by human ears. Frequencies below 20 Hz, known as infrasonic, while frequencies above 20,000 Hz known as ultrasound. Usually if someone is getting older so he also could no longer hear high frequency sounds. Earshot of parents;) ranged from 20 Hz to 10,000 Hz. Kaecian deh;) There are stories that are not interesting in this regard. It was said at the london school children's sms each other when the teacher was giving a lesson. Because the sms tones can be heard by the teacher then the teacher told them not to not sms each other's. Pupils who are then replaced nakal2 sms tone high frequency so that teachers can not hear. Eventually the students who nakal2 but the smart can bersms ria;) if yes hpnya disilent in Indonesia alone, so just why bother:)

Although humans can not hear sounds that have frequencies above 20,000 Hz (ultrasonic frequency), some animals can hear ultrasonic sound frequency. For example bats can hear sounds in frequency of 100,000 Hz. Or a dog can hear sounds in frequency to 50.000 Hz. Examples of animals that can hear ultrasonic sound wave frequency is the cat, rat, grasshopper. Other examples can you add through the comments column ... The crickets stopped singing ... this is because the crickets can hear low frequency sounds (footsteps we produce low-frequency vibrations). Infrasonic waves generated by earthquakes usually teknonik, volcanic earthquakes (volcanic eruption), thunder, heavy machinery vibration ... although the frequency infrasonic sound waves can not be heard by humans or certain animals but can menimbukan severe damage to human or animal body or it can destroy buildings . Infrasonic waves can demolish the building or cause damage to the body by way of resonance.
He said yesterday three days before the earthquake in Sichuan, China, a lot of frogs who paraded on the street. The frogs are trying menjahui city that became the epicenter. Many people do not know why the frogs are paraded on the street. It turned out that three days later menguncang devastating Sichuan earthquake, china. I suspected it was caused by resonance effects of tectonic earthquake vibrations. Before the devastating earthquake occurs, certain small-scale earthquakes have occurred. Resonance effects caused by these small-scale earthquake vibrations would be felt by the frogs so that they fled from their respective place of residence;) The same thing happened before the devastating volcanic eruption. Usually the animals escaped from his residence in the vicinity of the volcano, before the devastating eruption of the volcano. Resonance of volcanic tremor is very disturbing animals so the animal is trying to save themselves. Btw, this is just my reasoning alone ... I do not have a reference that explains this. You can put your opinions through the comment ... do not forget to explain in a scientific and reasonable.

Giancoli, Douglas C., 2001, in Physics Volume I (translation), Book publisher

Halliday and Resnick, 1991, in Physics Volume I, Translations, New York: publisher

Tipler, PA, 1998, Physics for Science and Engineering, Volume I (translation), Jakarta: Penebit Erlangga

Young, Hugh D. & Freedman, Roger A., 2002, University Physics (translation), Book publisher

Minggu, 04 April 2010

Cheap Alternative Fuel Diesel Fuel Substitute: Stay Planted!

Saturday, 19 - February - 2005,

Yesterday afternoon to evening, the auditorium of the School of Business and Management (SBM) ITB seemed satisfied by many researchers, ITB, government officials, parliament members, journalists, researchers from LIPI and other universities, and researchers from Japan. Dated February 18, 2005, new fuel is introduced environmentally friendly. Fuel that was developed by researchers at the ITB and the Mitsubishi Research Institute is just using jatropha oil extraction yield is scientifically known as jatropha. Oil from jatropha seeds can be used as a direct substitute for diesel oil used for diesel engines.

The development of this research project started in 2004, with sponsored by NEDO, New Energy and Technology Development Organization. As a regional supplier of castor seeds, NTT was chosen because it was a lot of Jatropha grows wild in the province. During this time, besides growing wild in a lot of bare land in the province, by the people of NTT, jatropha plant is only used as a fence. "I used could also be an instrument of enlightenment," said Frans Lebu Raya, the present Deputy Governor of NTT, "Seeds of jatropha tingling like satay and then burned." In culture, the gourd is already familiar with the people of NTT. In addition to this, jatropha is also known Naturalife Greenworld treatment resources, especially for skin diseases, relieves pain, and laxatives. However, the presence of petrol and diesel are subsidized to make the community NTT Indonesian society overall-and-forget plants that store large potential for this.

Results of performance tests of castor oil is indeed amazing. Pure castor oil (straight jatropha oil) BD 100 will have the same performance with diesel oil. Party central government itself, yesterday, among others, represented by Dr. Yogo Pratomo, Director General of the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of Electricity and Energy Utilization and Dr. Luluk Sumiarso, Jentral Secretary Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, express promise that the government will assist the development and dissemination of this alternative fuel. This was mainly supported by the production of castor oil prices that compete with the price of diesel fuel without subsidies. Prices of castor oil production is maximum USD 1000/kg, meanwhile, the price of diesel fuel without subsidies reach USD 1600/kg. "What needs to consider the stability of oil supplies certainly stay at this distance," said Yogo.

Mindu Sianipar, chairman of the House of Representatives Commission IV that one of its tasks manage the problem of agriculture is also very supportive of and grateful to the researchers from ITB and Mitsubishi. "This is not just a business issue," said Mindu, "but also help the villagers." On this occasion, Mindu also expect the use of castor oil used as fuel for diesel-powered fishing vessels. The important thing to consider also is the legal umbrella for this product. "Oil and Gas Law will make Pertamina to intervene in this product," said Mardjono, a member of another House of Representatives Commission IV, "It should benefit this product can be used as much as possible to improve the welfare of poor rural communities."

Research headed by Dr. Robert Manurung, from the Department of Chemical Engineering, ITB is one of several energy alternatives that are developed by ITB "We are also developing other alternative fuels. For example, biodiesel and fuel ethanol from cassava," said Dr. Faith Reksowardojo, chief Motor Fuels and Propulsion Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department of ITB, which is also a member of the research team was castor oil.

According to Robert, the main advantage is its processing of castor oil is cheap and simple. "Biodiesel machines were difficult to operate," he said, "The installation could not be done by the farmers. With castor oil, do not need to replace the engine, just with ordinary diesel engines. Replace all diesel oil with diesel, that's all."

Another major contribution of the ITB for the nation was revealed yesterday. In the middle of the issue of reduction in fuel subsidies, cheap fuel and environmentally friendly work of researchers of this ITB will provide a fresh breeze for the Indonesian people, especially people who depend on a weak economy with diesel, such as motor boats and fishermen to farmers for rice milling. In the meantime, bare land, particularly in parts of eastern Indonesia will be able to function as an organized distance cultivation areas. Obviously this will increase the welfare of the people in the area. Do not need mine anymore. Simply plant it!

Sea water: alternative fuels

Someday, you may see a seal that surrounds many refueling stations. That's because it's not the smell of gasoline, but rather the smell of the beach is more pronounced at the pump.

John Kanzius, 63 years old, has succeeded in creating alternative fuels from seawater. By coincidence, this broadcast technicians discovered something amazing. In the right conditions, sea water can be lit with extraordinary temperature. With some modifications, did not rule in the future, this can be made as an alternative fuel for motor vehicles.

Kanzius journey into the surprising inspiration began when she was diagnosed with leukemia in 2003. Faced with exhausting chemotherapy treatment, she chose to try to find a better alternative in destroying cancer cells. Then in comes with a tool Radio Frequency Generator (RFG), a machine that produces radio waves and memancarkannya to a particular area. Kanzius use RFG to heat small metallic particles inserted into tumors, destroying tumor cells without damaging normal cells.

But, what is the link between cancer with sea water fuel?

During experiments with RFG, he found that RFG can cause water to be around a test tube to condense. If the RFG could cause water to condense, this should be also to separate salt from sea water. Perhaps, this can be used to download desalinitasi seawater. An old proverb about the sea, "Water, water everywhere, and no one can tetespun drunk."

Some countries experiencing drought and the majority of people suffering from hunger, while 70% of the earth is the ocean that in fact is the water. An effective method for removing salt from sea water could save countless lives. So no wonder if Kanzius tried his instruments for the purpose of RFG desalinitasi seawater.

In the first test, he noticed a surprising side effect. When he directed his RFG on the jar containing sea water, water flowed like a boil. Kanzius then test again. Currently with the burning of paper and touching tisue into the sea water being in firing by the RFG. He was very surprised, sea water in the tubes remain lit on fire and ignited while the RFG.

At first news of this experiment is considered a lie, but after chemical experts from Penn State University conducted this experiment, it turns out it was true. RFG can burn seawater. The flame can reach 3000 degrees Fanrenheit and burned during the RFG ignited.

Then how is the sea water can burn? And what if the throw cigarette butts into the sea does not cause the earth to explode?

This is all related to hydrogen. Under normal circumstances, the composition of sea water has sodium chloride (salt) and hydrogen, oxygen (water) is stable. Owned radio waves from Kanzius RFG disrupt that stability, decided that there are chemical bonds in seawater. This release volatile hydrogen molecules, and the heat out of the RFG trigger and burn rapidly.

So will the future will be a car or motorcycle use sea water instead of gasoline?

If this technology could actually be realized, the world has no need to worry anymore with the energy crisis.

Bravo ..!!! science


Kamis, 01 April 2010

Night Watch Meteor Showers

If not cloudy skies this evening will be decorated with light coming from the Orionid meteor shower. Performing such nature will be evident before the sun rises.

The annual Orionid meteor shower is created when the Earth crossed the path of Halley's Comet. At that point there are bits of incandescent comet material and looks like a light rain when it entered Earth's atmosphere. Most of the remaining material the size of a pea, though most of the grains of sand.

"Grains of comet dust collide with the atmosphere that will provide dozens of meteor showers every hour," said Bill Coke from meteoroids NASA research centers, Tuesday (20/10).

However, people living in cities will see very little light because the meteors "falling stars" was beaten by city lights. The best location to see the meteor shower is in an area that is not polluted with the sunny light.

The best time to watch between 01:00 o'clock in the morning until the wee hours. That's when the Earth was exactly where we stand on the path of material in orbit so that the sky would be "captured" our atmosphere. However, some meteors may be visible before midnight.

Orionid meteor shower that becomes the foreground of the Orion star cluster, including decorating the most beautiful night sky. "Since 2006, Orionid a stunning spectacle with 60 or more meteors per hour," says Cooke. (